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Citations: ASA Citations

ASA Citation Help

ASA style intended for authors who are preparing manuscripts for publication in American Sociological Association journals.

ASA Style Guide

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American Sociological Association

 

The American Sociological Association

Quick Tips for ASA Style

This style sheet has been provided to assist students studying sociology in properly citing and referencing their papers and essays. The information in this document is taken from the American Sociological Association Style Guide (4th ed., 2010). We highly encourage students who plan to major in sociology or pursue their masters degree in sociology to purchase the complete Style Guide, which features sections on editorial styles, mechanics of style, guidelines for organizing and presenting content, and more detailed information on referencing your scholarly sources. Information about the ASA Style Guide can be found at www.asanet.org/journals/guides.cfm.

Plagiarism

The ASA has a firm commitment to full and proper attri- bution and authorship credit, as set forth in the ASA Code of Ethics.

(a) In publications, presentations, teaching practice, and service, sociologists explicitly identify credit, and refer- ence the author when they take data or material verbatim from another person’s written work, whether it is pub- lished, unpublished, or electronically available.

(b) In their publications, presentations, teaching, prac- tice, and service, sociologists provide acknowledgment of and reference to the use of others’ work, even if the work is not quoted verbatim or paraphrased, and they do not present others’ work as their own whether it is published, unpublished, or electronically available.

Text Citations

Citations in the text include the last name of the author(s) and year of publication. Include page numbers when quoting directly from a work or referring to specific passages. Identify subsequent citations of the same source in the same way as the first. Examples follow:

If the author’s name is in the text, follow it with the pub- lication year in parentheses:

...in another study by Duncan (1959).

If the author’s name is not in the text, enclose the last name and publication year in parentheses:

...whenever it occurred (Gouldner 1963).

Pagination follows the year of publication after a colon, with no space between the colon and the page number:

...Kuhn (1970:71).
Note: This is the preferred ASA style. Older forms of text citations are not acceptable: (Kuhn 1970, p. 71).

Give both last names for joint authors: ... (Martin and Bailey 1988).

If a work has three authors, cite all three last names in the first citation in the text; thereafter, use et al. in the citation. If a work has more than three authors, use et al. in the first citation and in all subsequent citations.

First citation for a work with three authors: ...had been lost (Carr, Smith, and Jones 1962).

Later: ...(Carr et al. 1962)
If a work cited was reprinted from a version published

earlier, list the earliest publication date in

brackets, followed by the publication date of the recent version used.

...Veblen ([1899] 1979) stated that...

Separate a series of references with semicolons. List the series in alphabetical or date order, but be consistent throughout the manuscript.

... (Green 1995; Mundi 1987; Smith and Wallop 1989).

Reference Lists

A reference list follows the text and footnotes in a sepa- rate section headed References. All references cited in the text must be listed in the reference section, and vice versa. It is the author’s responsibility to ensure that publication information for each entry is complete and correct.

◆ References should be double-spaced.
◆ List all references in alphabetical order by first author’s

last name

◆ Include first names and surnames for all authors. Use first-name initials only if an author used initials in the original publication. In these cases, add a space between the initials, as in R. B. Brown and M. L. B. Smith.

(See additional guidelines in the full text of the American Sociological Association Style Guide.)

Books

Author1 (last name inverted), Author2 (including full surname, last name is not inverted), and Author3. Year of publication. Name of Publication (italicized). Publisher’s city and state, or province postal code (or name of country if a foreign publisher): Publisher’s Name.

Examples:

Bursik, Robert J., Jr. and Harold G. Grasmick. 1993. Neigh- borhoods and Crime: The Dimensions of Effective Commu- nity Control. New York: Lexington Books.

Hagen, John and Ruth D. Peterson, eds. 1995. Crime and Inequality. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

Jaynes, Gerald D. and Robin M. Williams, Jr. 1989. A Com- mon Destiny: Blacks and American Society. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Journal Articles

Author1 (Last name inverted), Author2 (including full surname, last name is not inverted), and Author3.Year
of publication. “Title of Article.” Name of Publication (italicized) Volume Number (Issue Number):Page num- bers of article.

Examples:

Aseltine, Robert H., Jr. and Ronald C. Kessler. 1993. “Mari- tal Disruption and Depression in a Community Sample.” Journal of Health and Social Behavior 34(3):237-51.

Kalleberg, Arne L., Barbara F. Reskin, and Ken Hudson. 2000. “Bad Jobs in America: Standard and Nonstandard Employment Relations and Job Quality in the United States.” American Sociological Review 65(2):256-78.

E-Resources

Articles and books obtained from the Internet follow the same pattern as those cited above, with the exception that page numbers are omitted and the URL and date of access are included.

Examples:

Schafer, Daniel W. and Fred L. Ramsey. 2003. “Teaching the Craft of Data Analysis.” Journal of Statistics Education 11(1). Retrieved December 12, 2006 (http://www.amstat. org/publications/jse/v11n1/schafer.html).

Thomas, Jan E., ed. 2005. Incorporating the Woman Found- ers into Classical Theory Courses. Washington DC: Ameri- can Sociological Association. Retrieved December 12, 2006 (http://www.enoah.net/ASA/ASAshopOnlineSer- vice/ProductDetails.aspx?.productID=ASAOE378T05E).

Web sites

A general rule may be applied to citing of Web sites: If the Web site contains data or evidence essential to a point being addressed in the manuscript, it should be formally cited with the URL and date of access.

In the text of the paper cite as: (ASA 2006)

In the reference list:
American Sociological Association 2006. “Status Commit-

tees.” Washington, DC: American Sociological Associa- tion. Retrieved December 12, 2006 (http://www.asanet. org/cs/root/leftnav/committees/committees).

For information or to purchase a copy of the ASA Style Guide, please contact:

Publications Department American Sociological Association 1430 K Street NW, Suite 600 Washington, DC 20005
(202) 383-9005 (publications@asanet.org) 

 

This style sheet has been provided to assist students studying sociology in properly citing and referencing their papers and essays. The information in this document is taken from the American Sociological Association Style Guide (4th ed., 2010). We highly encourage students who plan to major in sociology or pursue their masters degree in sociology to purchase the complete Style Guide, which features sections on editorial styles, mechanics of style, guidelines for organizing and presenting content, and more detailed information on referencing your scholarly sources. Information about the ASA Style Guide can be found at www.asanet.org/journals/guides.cfm.

Plagiarism

The ASA has a firm commitment to full and proper attri- bution and authorship credit, as set forth in the ASA Code of Ethics.

(a) In publications, presentations, teaching practice, and service, sociologists explicitly identify credit, and refer- ence the author when they take data or material verbatim from another person’s written work, whether it is pub- lished, unpublished, or electronically available.

(b) In their publications, presentations, teaching, prac- tice, and service, sociologists provide acknowledgment of and reference to the use of others’ work, even if the work is not quoted verbatim or paraphrased, and they do not present others’ work as their own whether it is published, unpublished, or electronically available.

Text Citations

Citations in the text include the last name of the author(s) and year of publication. Include page numbers when quoting directly from a work or referring to specific passages. Identify subsequent citations of the same source in the same way as the first. Examples follow:

If the author’s name is in the text, follow it with the pub- lication year in parentheses:

...in another study by Duncan (1959).

If the author’s name is not in the text, enclose the last name and publication year in parentheses:

...whenever it occurred (Gouldner 1963).

Pagination follows the year of publication after a colon, with no space between the colon and the page number:

...Kuhn (1970:71).
Note: This is the preferred ASA style. Older forms of text citations are not acceptable: (Kuhn 1970, p. 71).

Give both last names for joint authors: ... (Martin and Bailey 1988).

If a work has three authors, cite all three last names in the first citation in the text; thereafter, use et al. in the citation. If a work has more than three authors, use et al. in the first citation and in all subsequent citations.

First citation for a work with three authors: ...had been lost (Carr, Smith, and Jones 1962).

Later: ...(Carr et al. 1962)
If a work cited was reprinted from a version published

earlier, list the earliest publication date in

brackets, followed by the publication date of the recent version used.

...Veblen ([1899] 1979) stated that...

Separate a series of references with semicolons. List the series in alphabetical or date order, but be consistent throughout the manuscript.

... (Green 1995; Mundi 1987; Smith and Wallop 1989).

Reference Lists

A reference list follows the text and footnotes in a sepa- rate section headed References. All references cited in the text must be listed in the reference section, and vice versa. It is the author’s responsibility to ensure that publication information for each entry is complete and correct.

◆ References should be double-spaced.
◆ List all references in alphabetical order by first author’s

last name

◆ Include first names and surnames for all authors. Use first-name initials only if an author used initials in the original publication. In these cases, add a space between the initials, as in R. B. Brown and M. L. B. Smith.

(See additional guidelines in the full text of the American Sociological Association Style Guide.)

Books

Author1 (last name inverted), Author2 (including full surname, last name is not inverted), and Author3. Year of publication. Name of Publication (italicized). Publisher’s city and state, or province postal code (or name of country if a foreign publisher): Publisher’s Name.

Examples:

Bursik, Robert J., Jr. and Harold G. Grasmick. 1993. Neigh- borhoods and Crime: The Dimensions of Effective Commu- nity Control. New York: Lexington Books.

Hagen, John and Ruth D. Peterson, eds. 1995. Crime and Inequality. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

Jaynes, Gerald D. and Robin M. Williams, Jr. 1989. A Com- mon Destiny: Blacks and American Society. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Journal Articles

Author1 (Last name inverted), Author2 (including full surname, last name is not inverted), and Author3.Year
of publication. “Title of Article.” Name of Publication (italicized) Volume Number (Issue Number):Page num- bers of article.

Examples:

Aseltine, Robert H., Jr. and Ronald C. Kessler. 1993. “Mari- tal Disruption and Depression in a Community Sample.” Journal of Health and Social Behavior 34(3):237-51.

Kalleberg, Arne L., Barbara F. Reskin, and Ken Hudson. 2000. “Bad Jobs in America: Standard and Nonstandard Employment Relations and Job Quality in the United States.” American Sociological Review 65(2):256-78.

E-Resources

Articles and books obtained from the Internet follow the same pattern as those cited above, with the exception that page numbers are omitted and the URL and date of access are included.

Examples:

Schafer, Daniel W. and Fred L. Ramsey. 2003. “Teaching the Craft of Data Analysis.” Journal of Statistics Education 11(1). Retrieved December 12, 2006 (http://www.amstat. org/publications/jse/v11n1/schafer.html).

Thomas, Jan E., ed. 2005. Incorporating the Woman Found- ers into Classical Theory Courses. Washington DC: Ameri- can Sociological Association. Retrieved December 12, 2006 (http://www.enoah.net/ASA/ASAshopOnlineSer- vice/ProductDetails.aspx?.productID=ASAOE378T05E).

Web sites

A general rule may be applied to citing of Web sites: If the Web site contains data or evidence essential to a point being addressed in the manuscript, it should be formally cited with the URL and date of access.

In the text of the paper cite as: (ASA 2006)

In the reference list:
American Sociological Association 2006. “Status Commit-

tees.” Washington, DC: American Sociological Associa- tion. Retrieved December 12, 2006 (http://www.asanet. org/cs/root/leftnav/committees/committees).

For information or to purchase a copy of the ASA Style Guide, please contact:

Publications Department American Sociological Association 1430 K Street NW, Suite 600 Washington, DC 20005
(202) 383-9005 (publications@asanet.org)